Friday, April 6, 2012
Culture Of Congo
Ethnicity and Language
Ethnicity, often called “tribalism”, was introduced in Congo by the colonialists in order to divide the people and prevent the rise of nationalism. Tribalism and regionalism were seen as the major causes of chaos and disruption following independence, and in the mid 1970s the N’sele Manifesto, the magna carta of Mobutu’s party, was created in order to eliminate tribalism from national politics and promote the ideologies of “authenticity”, which aimed at promoting and preserving Congo’s culture. At least 250 distinguishable ethnic groups live in Congo, speaking about 250 languages. Bantu languages are the most dominant and are spoken by 80 % of the population. French is the official language, used in business, legal, political and academic meetings. In addition to French, Congo has also four national languages – Kikongo, Lingala, Swahili, and Tshiluba, which can be considered as the regional lingua francas.
The majority of the Congolese population are Christians, comprising 46-48% Roman Catholics, and 26-28% Protestants. Kimbanguists may represent 16.5%, and Islam has a smaller number of adherents. Congolese traditional rites and beliefs are based on one supreme god with lesser and subordinate gods, or spirits and ancestors. The lesser spiritual beings serve as a link between the living and the dead. Other religions found in Congo include Jamaa and Kitawala. Kimpa Vita (known as the “black Joan-of-Arc), and Kimbangu were among the religious leaders or prophets who developed their own teachings based on Christian principles. They attracted so many followers that they became to be considered a danger by the authorities.
In terms of literature, Congolese writers have achieved recognition beyond national borders, joining the list of world-renowned poets and authors, and making their way into the spotlight. Among these writers are Léonie Abo, Patrice Lumumba, Thomas Kanza, Kama Kamanda, Maguy Rashidi-Kabamba, Amba Bongo, Clémentine Madiya, Faik-Nzuji, Antoine Roger Bolamba, Mutombo-Diba, Mwilambwe, Mushiete, Ghenzhi, Elebe ma Mikanza Mobyem, Diur N’tumb, Yoka Lyé Mudaba, Mutombo Buitshi, Pie Tshibanda, Elikia M’bokolo and many others. Other writers are emerging in the Congolese Diaspora, striving to highlight and expose the horrors and atrocities of a war that has plagued their country for 14 years, claiming the lives of over 6 million Congolese, frightening and pestering the population for control and exploitation of the land and its mineral wealth by multinational corporations, Rwanda and Uganda.
Theatrical arts are vibrant in the Congo, particularly in Kinshasa where a large number of groups flourished during the 1970s and1980s. Acting groups received major support from schools, universities, religious and social organizations. Many plays are written by local playwrights, but a few plays from international theater are produced as well. “Groupe Salongo” and “Minzoto Wela Wela” were among the most popular aside from the Théâtre National. “Authenticity” is very emphasized in productions, using African storytelling techniques, like “griot” or narrator, dream and fantasy sequences, and singing and dancing to the background of drums and musical instruments. When sponsored by the government or other organizations, the National Theater tour nationally and internationally.
Sculpture and Masks
Congo, like most African countries, is known for its ancient sculptures and masks which can be seen in museums all over the world. The variety of art styles and the abundance of its production make Congo a center of exceptional artistic riches and one of the most remarkable in Black Africa in terms of traditional arts. The influence of Congolese sculpture on modern art and the cubism movement has been well documented. Pottery, basketry, textiles like raffia and wood carving are also part of main handicrafts of Congo. There are at least fifty different styles of sculpture, related to the tribes. They bear the name of the tribe where they were developed and where they were kept. The main ones are Kongo, Teke, Holo, Suku, Pende, Mbala, Ngbandi, Ngbaka, Azande, Mangbetu, Mongo, Mbole, Lengola, Kuba, Luba, Songye, Lega, Bembe, Hemba, Tshokwe. There are many other tribes that produce unique works of equal value. Wood is the most used material, then come ivory, bone, plant fiber, metal: stone. The cowry shells, beads, feathers, animal skins, kaolin and vegetable colors complement and decorate numerous works. It is important to note that traditional art is essentially functional. Many objects that reflect aesthetic is purely utilitarian. Modern art is also finding its mark in Congo, with self-taught and graduates of Fine Art Schools. Painting is another area where Congolese artists excel in, with renowned painters like Chéri Samba, Maludi Solo, Mongita Lokele and many others.